Water Fording

Vehicle Water Wading Simulation:

Water wading tests are performed for ICE/HEV/EV vehicles to ensure the functional integrity of underhood components at different vehicle speeds and water depths. The simulation can emulate the test where the vehicle enters and exits the pool of water through a straight or inclined ramp.

The fast and robust multiphase flow solver in Simerics-MP+ captures the wading phenomenon and wave pattern in front of the vehicle accurately. It can also quantify the level and amount of water in the underhood compartment along with wetting of critical components.

More details can be found in the following papers.

Technical Paper:

1. Varshney, M., Pasunurthi, S., Maiti, D., Srinivasan, C. et al.,, “CFD Method Development for Simulating Water Fording for a Passenger Car,” SAE Technical Paper 2021-01-0205, 2021, doi:10.4271/2021-01-0205.


  • Vehicle water wading test scenarios can be simulated efficiently
  • Fast and Robust explicit VOF multiphase solver
  • Accurate capture of water-air interface with less diffusion
  • Tyre rotation is modelled and dynamic meshing to capture the inclined ramp
  • Vehicle template in Simerics-MP+ automates the CFD model setup
  • Fast turnaround time
  • Ease of use

Design Issues/Benefits:

  • Vehicle water wading at different speeds and water depths can be simulated
  • Vehicle entering and exiting the water tunnel through an inclined ramp can be simulated
  • Predicts water wave pattern in front and around the car at different wading scenarios
  • Predicts wetting of critical electrical and electronic components
  • Predicts water ingested in Air Induction System and underhood components